What are the differences between a violin and a viola?

Differences between violin and viola

That is a very recurring question, we are frequently asked about it when presenting our 5-string electric violins. Electric violins with 5 strings have an additional string, which is the C string that is typically used on violas.

The violin and viola are both part of the bowed string instrument family, along with the cello and the double bass. The viola has its place in the middle register of the string family. It is tuned using the same principle as the violin, in fifths, except that it is in the lower fifth.

The violin and the viola look similar at first glance. For the average person, it is often difficult to distinguish between the two of them, especially if they are not displayed side by side. In fact, there are a lot of similarities between the viola and the violin:

  • They are held in the same way: on the shoulder
  • They have the same number of strings (4 strings)
  • They have a similar shape
  • They are played by rubbing a bow on the strings

And yet by looking at the image below, you will identify the first difference between a violin and a viola: their size is significantly different.

Differences between viola and violin

1. A matter of height and weight

Viola size VS Violin size

The first difference is the size of the two instruments. In the 15th century, the viola had very different sizes. A tenor viola model once existed, it had excessive dimensions which made it difficult to play. Today, the difference in size between several violas is still present, but a “norm” has been established. It is not a constant, but we are talking about bodies between 38 and 43cm.

To define which viola or violin size an instrumentalist needs, it is necessary to measure the distance between the neck and the palm of the instrumentalist’s hand by keeping the arm extended in a parallel position to the ground.

For instance, an adult sized viola must be at least 67 cm long. In this case, we are talking about a 16-inch viola. On the other hand, for the violin, the length will be at least 60 cm for an adult. In this case, an adult violinist will use a 4/4 violin, which is the reference size for violins and is called the full-size violin.

In the case of a violin, we use the terms 4/4 violin, 3/4 violin, 1/2 violin, etc. Whereas for the viola we refer to 12″, 13″ up to 16 1/2″. Here below you will find a comparison chart between these sizes and their length from neck to arm. Click on each image to see them in a larger format.

Violin sizes
viola sizes

If your child is under 6 years old, and you are looking for a viola, you may have a hard time finding one that is so small available on the market. However, if you compare the sizes of the violins and the violas, you will find that a 4/4 violin (adult) corresponds approximately to a 14″ viola. It is therefore possible to choose a violin of a similar size and “transform” it into a viola, then switch to a real viola at the proper time. To transform a violin into a viola, simply replace the violin strings with viola strings…

The ages mentioned in the previous tables are given as a rough guide. Every child grows in a different manner and it is possible that a smaller or bigger size is required for your child to be able to practice in the most appropriate conditions.

Weight difference

Since the viola is larger, its structure contains a greater amount of material, which means that it is heavier than the violin. Even if the viola’s playing mode is identical to that of the violin, supporting it will require a greater amount of effort on the arm. A viola weighs about 580g, while a violin weighs about 460g.

Finger spacing

The difference in size between the viola and the violin is reflected in the position of the fingers. They will be further apart on a viola because the gap between the strings is greater than the one on a violin. As a result, the dexterity of the fingers will be different.

2. Different strings

Both the classical viola and the classical violin have 4 strings each, but they are not the same.

orchestra

The viola uses the strings:

  • Do or C (the lowest)
  • Sol or G
  • Ré or D
  • La or A (the highest)

The violin on the other hand uses the strings:

  • Mi or G (the lowest)
  • La or D
  • Ré or A
  • Sol or E (the highest)

The sound of a viola is therefore lower than that of a violin. The physical distance between the strings is also different. It will be greater on a viola. This is why when violists switch over to a violin and vice versa, they will have a hard time locating the position of their fingers. The viola strings are also thicker and require more strength on the part of the viola player.

The four strings of the violin are separated by a perfect fifth interval. The viola has a lower scale than the violin and is exactly one octave higher than the cello.

3. Two playing styles

Different physical constraints

The viola and violin seem similar, but the larger size of the viola will subject the violist’s body to greater physical constraints.

The length of the string requires larger gaps to be made. The size of the instrument also limits the flexibility of hand and body movements. The viola will also impose greater physical constraints on the viola player’s arm, which must support a greater amount of weight. In conclusion, the violist must make a greater effort when playing.

orchestra

However, these constraints are not prohibitive, they are to be considered as the result of a comparison between the two instruments. Instrumentalists intuitively adapt their playing style according to the instrument they use…

Playing

The way of playing and handling the bow are also different in order to master the desired sounds. Since the length of the viola is greater, the bow will also be longer, and therefore heavier.

The size of the viola entails a wider positioning of the fingers on the neck of the instrument. The effort and strength required from the hands, fingers and arms must also be greater, as the strings are thicker.

4. Different keys

C key vs G key

The viola is read using the key of C and the key of G, while the violin is read using the key of G. Reading a score based on these two keys requires an adaptation since you have to learn to decode each of them.

5. The sound

Due to its larger size and the use of a lower string, the viola will produce a lower and darker sound. This sound is also often referred to as softer, rounder, mellow, velvety and richer for the upper and mid-ranges.

The musical repertoire for the violin is broader. Great composers have given the violin a prominent place in their compositions. In an orchestra, the violin plays the melody, while the viola usually serves as an accompaniment instrument. It usually doubles the melody of the violin and replicates the bass of the cello.

orchestra schema

In an orchestra, there is a larger number of violins. We will have two violin sections, while there will be only one viola section. Note that violins are the only instruments with two sections, all the other instruments used in an orchestra have only one.

Sources and images: Wikipedia, Pixabay – niekverlaan, Unsplash – Larisa Birta, Manuel Nägeli